UPDATES! 21/6/14: Use a different interface that does just WAN traffic and made the cron thing actually work. Scroll down for the green bits (padavans firmware only though).
I’ve spent the last few days fiddling around with network traffic monitoring on my modem so I can track downloads for each different computer on my network. This article is a how to guide and a set of notes about getting it working.
If you want to follow this guide, you will need an Asus RT-N56U or one of the similar models. You can also mostly follow this guide using any OpenWRT routers (but you will need to adjust as you go to suit your router). I initially set it up using the stock firmware on the RT-N56U, however I ran into issues where it was reporting the wrong amount of traffic. After I installed the Padavan’s Firmware, I still had the same problem (I later solved it by disabling hardware NAT below). In theory this technique should work with the stock firmware and I’ll detail it below as well as how to get Padavan’s Firmware up and running too.
Method 1: Using Stock Firmware
Sorry this method isn’t super complete as I never got it working (though you can get it working in theory by following this guide).
1. Update to the latest firmware.
⁃ Always a good idea, you can download the firmware off the Asus Website
2. Enable Telnet
⁃ You can enable telnet by going to the Administration -> System section. You can log in via telnet using the username/password you’ve got set for the web interface login and either Putty on Windows or Terminal on Mac.
⁃ Note that the Padavans Firmware allows SSH access too.
3. Install wrtbwmon (http://code.google.com/p/wrtbwmon/)
⁃ Because you can’t write to the system in the stock firmware (that I know of), this app will exist in the /tmp directory and disappear after a reboot. The br0 part here is probably wrong, See the padavan version of it!
wget http://wrtbwmon.googlecode.com/files/wrtbwmon -O /tmp/wrtbwmon && chmod +x /tmp/wrtbwmon /tmp/wrtbwmon setup br0
– This Code will download wrtbwmon from the googlecode servers, save it into /tmp/ and make it executable. It’ll then do the initial setup of wrtbwmon.
4. Disable Hardware NAT. See Below to see the issues I had with Hardware NAT and the method this uses to track the usage. According to some forums (http://forums.smallnetbuilder.com/showthread.php?t=4317&page=9), if you enable some options like VPN passthrough or QoS, it will disable the hardware NAT and leave you on the software based one that allows the wrtbwmon to work. I didn’t get to test this because I ended up using Padavans Firmware that gives you a simple option to disable it.
5. Make a file to match MAC addresses to Names. (Optional)
⁃ This one is simple, just substitute the following with your own MAC address/Device names (The device listing in the Router web page will help you with this). Note: Using the stock firmware you need to use Upper case MAC Addresses.
⁃ Code (repeat this for each device.)
echo "MA:CA:DD:RE:SS:00,DeviceName" >> /www/user/users.txt
6. Run wrtbwmon every x minutes to update the usage.
⁃ To update the usage, you need to run:
/tmp/wrtbwmon update /tmp/usage.db peak
– This will update the usage. You should set this to run say every 15 minutes during peak hours, and replace the word peak with offpeak to do the off-peak hours. It doesn’t matter how often it is run, as it will zero the counters every time it is run (so you can run it every hour, or every minute if you like).
– After this is run, You’ll need to then write the usage data to the webpage form, which is done by the command:
/tmp/wrtbwmon publish /tmp/usage.db /www/user/usage.htm /www/user/users.txt
– This tells wrtbwmon to publish a html file to /www/user/usage.htm, using the /www/user/users.txt file which has the MAC address -> User mapping
– The /www/user/ folder is actually a symlink to /tmp/www/user (correct me if I’m wrong, I’m writing this part from memory), so it gets wiped out when you reboot the router too.
7. Setup cron to automate the above step
⁃ I didn’t get to this step, the Hardware NAT issue in step 4 had me stumped until I was on Padavan’s firmware, but the above should work *in theory* on stock firmware.
8. Work out how to make it persist through reboots.
⁃ Again, another problem I didn’t get around to sorting out, as I had moved to Padavan’s firmware by this time. I believe there’s an option somehow to use a thing called optware, which will allow you to run the program off a USB stick and store the data there. Padavan’s firmware has an easier way of doing this 😛
If you work a better way of doing this (and instructions to step 7/8, please leave a comment!)
You can then access the traffic page at http://192.168.1.1/user/usage.htm
Method 2: Using Padavan’s Firmware
This is the method I ultimately ended up using after having the trouble with Hardware based NAT (Padavan’s has an easy option to turn it off).
1. Download the latest Padavan’s Firmware for your model of router
⁃ MAKE SURE YOU GET THE EXACT RIGHT VERSION FOR YOUR ROUTER. I don’t think it matters which one you get in terms of the aria/base/dlna version (they have slightly different additional features, I used the dlna version). There’s an N56U and N65U version, don’t get confused!
2. Install Padavan’s Firmware!
⁃ The version I grabbed was RT-N56U_220.127.116.11-072_dlna.zip
⁃ Unzip the Firmware, this will give you a .trx file like so: RT-N56U_18.104.22.168-072_dlna.trx
⁃ Go to the router home page -> System -> Firmware Update and upload the .trx file.
⁃ This will take 3-5 minutes or so to complete. Don’t interrupt it, don’t touch it, don’t touch your computer, don’t even breathe (this is the scariest step)
⁃ After the update is complete, your router will be reset to default settings. YOU CAN NOT RESTORE YOUR SETTINGS FROM THE OLD FIRMWARE USING THE .CFG FILE BACKUP THING. Just go through and redo all your settings manually.
3. Enable SSH support
⁃ This is under Administration -> System -> Enable SSH server
4. Enable entware.
⁃ This step requires a little bit of work, you should follow the guide here (basically gives you somewhere to write your program to on the USB drive), in theory, you could skip this step and put the wrtbwmon either in tmp where it won’t stick through a reboot, or find somewhere it will stick (maybe /etc/storage?). Entware gives you access to a whole bunch of other software you can run on your router too.
5. Disable Hardware NAT.
⁃ This is way easier on Padavan’s firmware, go to Advanced Settings -> WAN and pick “Offload TCP for LAN”
6. Install wrtbwmon. I decided to put mine in /opt/bin/ so it was on the USB drive (though I think technically it should be somewhere else)
wget http://wrtbwmon.googlecode.com/files/wrtbwmon -O /opt/bin/wrtbwmon && chmod +x /opt/bin/wrtbwmon
– This downloads it from google code servers into /opt/bin/wrtbwmon and makes it executable.
7. Create the directory for the web interface.
⁃ Padavan’s firmware has a slightly different structure for where to put html files, instead of in /www/user/ (linking to /tmp/www/user/), it has the link in /www/custom/ pointing to /opt/share/www/custom/ (which will be on the USB drive assuming you followed the instructions above)
⁃ The command for this is:
8. Give it a test run. To run wrtbwmon, you’ll need to run the setup first: (Updated, see this link for different interfaces)
/opt/bin/wrtbwmon setup br0
/opt/bin/wrtbwmon setup eth3
⁃ Then you’ll need to run it to update it every x minutes (say every 5minutes to an hour or so) (Substitute “peak” for “offpeak” to log offpeak times)
/opt/bin/wrtbwmon update /tmp/usage.db peak
⁃ Then you need to publish the results:
/opt/bin/wrtbwmon publish /tmp/usage.db /www/custom/usage.htm /www/custom/users.txt
9. Far out, that step was so wrong and never worked. Time for a new version of Step 9!
Set up Cron (Properly!)
Make a new file for cron_tasks (run that nano command, paste everything from the next box in, then ctrl-o to save, ctrl-x to exit):
# nano /etc/storage/cron_tasks
#!/bin/sh mode="$1" case $mode in peak) /opt/bin/wrtbwmon update /tmp/usage.db peak; /opt/bin/wrtbwmon publish /tmp/usage.db /www/custom/usage.htm /www/custom/users.txt ;; offpeak) /opt/bin/wrtbwmon update /tmp/usage.db offpeak; /opt/bin/wrtbwmon publish /tmp/usage.db /www/custom/usage.htm /www/custom/users.txt ;; *) exit 0 ;; esac
Next, add some info to the started_script.sh file. As above, run the nano command, go to the bottom of the document, paste your code in and Ctrl-O, Ctrl-X to save/exit.
# nano /etc/storage/started_script.sh
################# user crontabs create ################### # if app not exist if [ ! -f /usr/sbin/crond ]; then exit 0 fi if [ -n "`pidof crond`" ] ; then # stop daemon killall -q crond fi # create /var/spool/cron/crontabs directory if [ ! -d /var/spool/cron/crontabs ]; then mkdir -p /var/spool/cron cd /var/spool/cron mkdir -p /var/spool/cron/crontabs fi Login=`nvram get http_username` touch /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "SHELL=/bin/sh" > /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "MAILTO=""" >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "HOME=/" >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "*/20,59 0-2 * * * /etc/storage/cron_tasks peak" >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "*/20,59 3-8 * * * /etc/storage/cron_tasks offpeak" >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login echo "*/20,59 9-23 * * * /etc/storage/cron_tasks peak" >> /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$Login /usr/sbin/crond -l 0 -L /var/log/cron.log ########################################################## /opt/bin/wrtbwmon setup eth3
Once you’ve changed those two files, you need to make the cron_tasks file executable, then save the settings so they’ll stick across a reboot, and then finally run the started_script.sh. The following lines will do that:
# chmod 755 /etc/storage/cron_tasks # mtd_storage.sh # /etc/storage/started_script.sh
You can then access the traffic page at http://192.168.1.1/custom/usage.htm
Hardware NAT Issues
So I had some massive issues getting iptables to keep track of how much data was going through, I would do about a gigabyte of downloads and iptables would think that only 200-300kb had gone through. I managed to narrow it down to the fact that instead of the routing going via iptables, it would go through the hardware based NAT and it wouldn’t be accounted for (boooo).
The Asus RT-N56U Manual: http://dlcdnet.asus.com/pub/ASUS/wireless/RT-N56U/E7822_RT_N56U_Manual_English.pdf
Padavan’s Firmware: http://code.google.com/p/rt-n56u/
Padavan’s Firmware entware Setup: http://code.google.com/p/rt-n56u/wiki/HowToConfigureEntware
Padavan’s Firmware cron Setup: https://code.google.com/p/rt-n56u/wiki/CommonTips#Using_the_built-in_scheduler_%28crond%29
wrtbwmon Homepage: http://code.google.com/p/wrtbwmon/